Scholars tend to understand design as a practice of shaping artifacts—of giving form to objects and symbols. For a time, this perspective made a lot of sense. After all, architects shape buildings, industrial designers shape products, graphic designers shape graphics, and so on. But the role that design plays in society has changed, and new practices have emerged that cannot be explained by an artifact-centric definition of design. Today designers also work to shape services, experiences, systems, and social change. Yet design research has failed to provide a coherent definition of design that can account for these new activities.